National Parties


  • India’s Political Parties originated in the late nineteenth century when the mass-movement against the British rule was gaining momentum.
  • In the long-drawn struggle against imperial domination, it represented an assertion of national solidarity of the Indian people, not only for liberation from foreign rule but also, and more importantly, for eventually building a new structure of democratic India.



  • The Indian National Congress founded in 1885 is regarded as the first political party of India, even though during the initial years it did not possess the objectives of a political party, viz. to capture political power.
  • The other groups or parties which appeared thereafter were the Muslim League, the Hindu Maha Sabha and the Akali Dal, even though they lacked the genuine character of a political party.



  • The BJP’s origin lies in the Bhartiye Jan Sangh, formed in 1951  Shyama Prasad Mukherjee. After the State Emergency in 1977, the Jana Sangh merged with several other parties to form the Janta Party, it defeated the incumbent Congress party in the 1977 general election.



  • Another major party which originated in the pre-independence period was the Communist Party of India. Most other political parties made their appearance after independence.