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It is both interesting and important to know and understand the Political system in India that governs it. It is known as the Parliamentary System which consists of two houses, i.e. Rajya Sabha or the Upper House and the Lok Sabha or the Lower House. The Rajya Sabha represents the states and the Lok Sabha represents the State i.e. India.
The President of India is the constitutional Head of both the houses, as well as the Commander-in-Chief of all the three Armed Forces of India. The Constitution of India vests all the executive powers of the Union Government in him. He is elected by an electoral college conforming both the houses of Parliament and state Legislative. He’s appointed for a 5 years’ term and can be re-elected.
The members of the Rajya Sabha are not elected directly by the citizens but elected indirectly by the State Legislative Assembly. The President of India nominates 12 members to Rajya Sabha, who are eminent personalities from different fields like Science, Art, Literature and Social Service. The total strength of this house can be a maximum of 250 and the members have a tenure of 6 years with 1/3rd of the assembly elected every 2 years.
The Federal Republic of India is divided into 29 states and 7 Union Territories. These are further divided into 543 constituencies depending upon the population of the state, like Rajasthan which is a bigger state than UP but with a lesser population, has 25 constituency seats while UP has 80. Each of these 543 constituencies is represented by 1 elected member who is elected on the basis of First-Past-The-Post system (FPTP), which means the one who has got more number of votes than any other contesting candidate is declared the winner. Other than these, 2 more members from the Anglo-Indian community are nominated by the President which makes the total strength of the house as 545. The tenure of a Lok Sabha member is for a period of 5 years unless dissolved. The Lok Sabha elects is presiding officer who’s called Speaker of the house.
The Leader of the Party with majority in the house becomes the Prime Minister who is the real executive authority of the country. He nominates a Cabinet and constitutes a Council of Ministers through which he takes all the executive decisions, formulates important policies and leads the nation both at home and at international level.
In case no single party gets the majority then the unanimous Leader of the pre or post poll alliance of the coalition parties becomes the Prime Minister.
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